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Wired: Mother Earth Mother Board

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In a blast from the past, this 1996 Wired article about the intrigues of the underwater optical fiber cable business resurfaced. It’s a real long-read about the construction of the 28000 km long FLAG cable, connecting UK to Japan, and various countries and obstacles along the way. Still, it’s well worth the journey. Enjoy!

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Asus Thinker Board

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Asus recently released their single board computer “Thinker Board”, modeled on the same form-factor and pin layout as the Raspberry Pi 2 and 3, and at the same price point. It comes with some interesting upgrades over the RPi 3: 2 GB RAM (over 1 GB); 1.8 GHz quad core (over 1.2 GHz quad) dedicated Realtek 1 Gb/s Ethernet; Realtek audio codec; and support for 4k HDMI out. It could make both a good media player platform, as well as a usable desktop box.

In their early review, Hackaday laments the lack of website and community. The former has since been addressed, and Asus’ official site is actually rather slick fun and informative, and includes a Debian based OS ISO and other downloads. They have also put up a Facebook page, but it’s mostly linked product reviews and blog post for now.

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QNAP TS-431P NAS

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Tasked with setting up another NAS solution, I went for the simple 4-bay QNAP TS-431P, since the previous QNAP gave a good impression. This one does not have HDMI; in fact the only external ports are three USB 3 ports and two RJ-45 Gigabit Ethernet – no eSATA. Compared to its previous version, TS-431P has double the amount of RAM (for a total of 1 GB), and a slightly faster CPU. Software is as expected from QNAP.

The following describes the standard disk layout when using a single / stand alone disk, which still gets formatted as RAID + LVM, and optionally an encrypted partition.

Windows shares setup is covered at the end.

 

RAID and LVM

The QNAP NAS OS supports encryption, and I wanted to evaluate how secure this is in terms of failure. That is, if a disk fails, or the NAS itself fails, can you recover the data from the remaining disks. You can, but there are a few steps to watch out for.

First of all, even if each disk in the NAS is set up as “Single Disk / Stand Alone”, using no RAID, the NAS will still configure each partition on the separate disks as RAID partitions and in a LVM2 single volume group. That means you’ll need the Linux RAID and LVM tools and commands to mount. (Some useful discussion here).

General install, scan and list commands:

apt-get install mdadm lvm2

mdadm --assemble --scan
cat /proc/mdstat
lsblk

vgscan
lvs
lvscan
lvmdiskscan
lvdisplay

And to mount, use the example commands below.

Note: The device names and volume names will most certainly be different. Use the commands above to understand the layout of the disk you’re working with.

Also note: if the mdadm scan command does not make all the RAID partitions available, it could be due to an existing /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf file. You could try to rename it to mdadm.conf.old, or append the RAID details with mdadm –detail –scan >> /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf. See here for more.

mdadm --assemble --scan
lsbkl

vgscan
vgchange -ay vg1
lsblk

mount /dev/vg1/lv1 /mnt/tmp

That should mount the drive, however, if you are working with an encrypted drive, you’ll need one more step before the mount command works, so ignore the last line and continue reading.

 

Encryption

If you have followed the steps above, and type lsblk, part of the output will look something like this. It shows the layers so far: from the physical partition (sdb3) to the raid1 partition (md126), which contains two LVM logical volumes. In this case, the second is the LUKS encrypted main partition.

├─sdb3              8:19   0   3.6T  0 part  
│ └─md126           9:126  0   3.6T  0 raid1 
│   ├─vg288-lv545 254:1    0  37.2G  0 lvm   
│   └─vg288-lv2   254:2    0   3.6T  0 lvm   

So, we continue to decrypt, and mount it. Using cryptsetup luksDump, you can confirm that there is only one keyslot on the encrypted volume, which uses the paraphrase you typed in when installing the drive. However, the password is salted and MD5 hashed, so you have to generate a key-file with the new key. The salt is YCCaQNAP when using the mkpasswd tool, but encoded as $1$YCCaQNAP$ when calling the crypt library. Also make sure the key-file does not contain a newline.

cryptsetup luksDump /dev/vg288/lv2

mkpasswd --hash=md5 --salt='YCCaQNAP' | tr -d '\n' > /tmp/key-file
cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/vg288/lv2 unenc_lv2 --key-file /tmp/key-file

mkdir /mnt/tmp
mount /dev/mapper/unenc_lv2 /mnt/tmp
lsblk

You now have access to the data files on the drive.

Coming back to the original question: Is this a resilient way of storing files? There are certainly a lot of layers, and although they each are well established technologies, they add complexity. Especially in the scenario when you would need to do the recovery it adds additional stress. Ideally, a single partition, no RAID, no LVM could be used. However, it seems that is not possible with the stock QNAP OS, since it will format any drive which is added to the NAS in its own way, including the RAID + LVM stack. In fact, this warning from the user manual is worthing taking careful note of:

Caution: Note that if you install a hard drive (new or used) which has never been installed on the NAS before, the hard drive will be formatted and partitioned automatically and all the disk data will be cleared.

 

Windows shared folders

The Windows sharing is easier to set up, but not without hurdles. On the local network, it typically will work out of the box when you point Windows Explorer to \\NAS_DOMAIN. If you need to connect across a firewall, you’ll have to open or forward at the minimum TCP 139,445, but possibly more ports on TCP and UDP.

The problem is that when sharing these ports cross the Internet, you will very likely run into other firewalls. ISP might block the default 139 or 445 ports. Although it is possible to port-forward to non-default ports, and this will work on Mac and Android, Windows will not accept it. A work-round if all else fails is therefore to set up a VPN or tunnel. Using SSH, this can easily be done with:

ssh -L 0.0.0.0:139:qnap:139 -L 0.0.0.0:445:qnap:445 admin@remotehost

Here it is assumed the NAS has DNS “qnap” on its local network, otherwise, replace with it’s IP. You might also want to forward 8080, forward SSH on a different port (e.g. 2222), as well as keep it running with autossh:

autossh -M 12340 -f -N -p 2222 -L 0.0.0.0:139:qnap:139 -L 0.0.0.0:445:qnap:445 -L 0.0.0.0:8080:qnap:8080 admin@remotehost

Finally, if using only Windows machines to connect to the shares, there is the option of combining multiple shares into one. However, if other OSes also connect, you probably want to skip that.

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Facebook exit stage left

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In an older article about social network trends, I discussed how Facebook in particular was far past its peak as measured by Google Trends. And that trend has not turned. There is a smaller and smaller fraction of web searches for the term “facebook”. It is now around a similar level as in 2009. Some of this can be explained by the fact that more people use the Facebook mobile app to access the social network, and therefore do not need to search Google to access the site. However, as pointed out by this Guardian article, despite claiming 1.79 billion users, 2016 was the year Facebook “became the bad guy”. In the Western world, interest was saturated several years ago, and new users come from other regions and possibly where Facebook have been blocked. They now plan to adapt their site and network to China’s censor and surveillance requirements.

Yet, if you are an investor in the social network, you might want to hold on a bit longer before you sell. In recent years, Facebook has snapped up both of the new popular social apps Whatsapp and Instagram (in 2014 and 2012 respectively). They continue their upwards trend, and will do so for many years to come. Compared to Facebook they both pale on Google Trends, meaning there’s a lot of potential.


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12 TB helium and 14TB helium + SMR announced

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HGST has just announced a new helium filled drive of 12 TB. The increase in capacity comes from an impressive and unexpected 8 platter design. Meanwhile, Western Digital forecasts that they will take the Ultrastar He12 based disk to 14 TB by combining it with Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR). No prices are indicated yet.

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Review: “The Internet Is Not the Answer”, Andrew Keen

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Andrew Keen is a bitter man. He longs for the time when his family ran a tailor business in London and middle class people could afford to buy clothes from their store. He resents the fact that his own music Internet site failed, while seemingly similar sites like MySpace, Spotify came to be valued in billions. For some reason he mourns the demise of Kodak and its film roll processing centre in Rochester, NY. And most of all, he despises rich folk, but not any billionaire, just those who happen to have made their money through the Internet. Keen’s book “The Internet Is Not the Answer” reads a bit like a rant towards all these things, while blaming it all on Silicon Valley and The Internet. The solutions he favour are mostly based on government regulation: six strikes laws for copyright infringement; antitrust and monopoly busting; mixed with labor unions.

Even though Keen’s book has a bitter tone throughout, he does touch on important points regarding increasing wealth disparity, middle class jobs being replaced by automation and far fewer specialized jobs, monopolistic mega-cooperations, centralized services. He takes on Amazon, Google, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, WhatsApp. He has done thorough research, and his book includes a substantial reference section. It is just that his conclusions doesn’t always align with actual causes and effects: Take the downfall of Kodak, where he spends a full chapter lamenting Instagram for the killing of film processing. Companies like Canon and Nikon which developed and sell high quality DSLR cameras and thus more directly caused the replacement of film are not mentioned.

Similarly, Keen reviews the history of the early days of the Internet, and its inventors and pioneers like Paul Baran, Bob Taylor, Bob Kahn, Vint Cerf, Tim Berners-Lee and points out how altruistic and anti-commercial they were. He contrasts this to “winner-take-all” companies in today’s economy. However, he does not discuss the seemingly obvious conclusion that what we’re lacking from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter are common open standards and protocols, which is what made early technology successful and long-lasting. Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) does not enter Keen’s field of view at all.

Maybe not worth it

If you already work in tech, and have good insight into these topics, Keen does not bring much new to the table. In fact, he disappoints in that regard. However, if you are interested in gentrification in San Francisco, Kodak in Rochester, or just want to hear a different point of view, give the book a try.

What Keen does have going for him, is that he is a very good writer. He writes almost poetically, albeit with great sarcasm, about topics like Internet economy, government regulation, and pretentious billionaires. Sound bites like the one below at least make the book entertaining.
While talking about the cult and praise of “failure” in tech-companies:

“Instagram actually represents the reverse side of Silicon Valley’s cult of failure. In the Valley, the rich and famous claim to be failures; on social networks like Instagram, millions of failures claim to be rich and famous”.

Finally, although it’s no way to be sure, it sometimes feels like the writes of Silicon Valley, the TV comedy series, have studied the book thoroughly and lifted several ideas from Keen onto the screen. What Keen scorns, like the double-speak; the feel-good big-company efforts and speeches; and the general Valley culture has made the TV series a hit. Keen’s book makes the series even more fun to watch.

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Storage prices – end of 2016

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The last half-year have seen few movements in spinning disk prices, and actually some have gotten a few coins more expensive. It is still the 8 TB SMR Seagate drive which give most storage for money, only with the exception of a special offer on an external 8 TB WD disk. In fact, several of the external offerings are now cheaper than their internal counterparts.

Also worth noting, is that Western Digital has deprecated their long time cheapest Green line, in favour of the Blue color. However, take care: The Blue line contains both 5400 and 7200 RPM drives. The ones listed here are all 5400 RPM.

On the SSD side, things have also not changed much. There were some promises, but not much in terms of concrete offerings this year.

Finally, many of the flash cards are getting more competitive. Indeed, the the Sandisk Ultra 256 GB key, as well as the 200 GB micro SD card are now pretty great offering for on-the-go storage. They’d fit very decent sized music collections, picture albums, etc.

Media Type Product Capacity Price CHF Price Euros Euros / GB GBs / Euro
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 8TB, USB3 8000 GB 250.00 233.64 0.03 34.24
HDD-SMR Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB 8000 GB 266.00 248.60 0.03 32.18
HDD Seagate Desktop 4TB 4000 GB 134.00 125.23 0.03 31.94
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 6TB, USB3 6000 GB 202.00 188.79 0.03 31.78
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 135.00 126.17 0.03 31.70
HDD Western Digital Blue, 5400 RPM 3TB 3000 GB 107.00 100.00 0.03 30.00
HDD Western Digital Blue, 5400 RPM 4TB 4000 GB 145.00 135.51 0.03 29.52
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 149.00 139.25 0.03 28.72
SMR External 3.5 Seagate Backup Plus Desktop 8TB 8000 GB 300.00 280.37 0.04 28.53
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 115.00 107.48 0.04 27.91
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 118.00 110.28 0.04 27.20
HDD Western Digital Blue, 5400 RPM 6TB 6000 GB 244.00 228.04 0.04 26.31
HDD Western Digital Red 4TB 4000 GB 164.00 153.27 0.04 26.10
HDD Western Digital Blue, 5400 RPM 5TB 5000 GB 208.00 194.39 0.04 25.72
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 125.00 116.82 0.04 25.68
HDD Western Digital Red 3TB 3000 GB 126.00 117.76 0.04 25.48
HDD Western Digital Red 6TB 6000 GB 252.00 235.51 0.04 25.48
HDD Western Digital Blue, 5400 RPM 2TB 2000 GB 84.90 79.35 0.04 25.21
HDD-He Western Digital Red 8TB 8000 GB 345.00 322.43 0.04 24.81
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 88.00 82.24 0.04 24.32
HDD Western Digital Red 2TB 2000 GB 98.00 91.59 0.05 21.84
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 103.00 96.26 0.05 20.78
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He6 6TB 6000 GB 361.00 337.38 0.06 17.78
HDD Western Digital Blue, 5400 RPM 1TB 1000 GB 61.70 57.66 0.06 17.34
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 62.00 57.94 0.06 17.26
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He8 8TB 8000 GB 517.00 483.18 0.06 16.56
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 72.00 67.29 0.07 14.86
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R SL 10 @ 25GB 250 GB 23.90 22.34 0.09 11.19
DVD-R Verbatim 16x DVD-R 100 @ 4,7GB 470 GB 46.00 42.99 0.09 10.93
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R DL 10 @ 50GB 500 GB 49.00 45.79 0.09 10.92
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 25 @ 8,5GB 213 GB 39.00 36.45 0.17 5.83
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 50 @ 8,5GB 425 GB 95.40 89.16 0.21 4.77
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 480GB 480 GB 139.00 129.91 0.27 3.69
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 256GB 256 GB 78.00 72.90 0.28 3.51
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 500GB 500 GB 165.00 154.21 0.31 3.24
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 240GB 240 GB 81.00 75.70 0.32 3.17
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 1TB 1000 GB 339.00 316.82 0.32 3.16
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 175.00 163.55 0.33 3.06
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 374.00 349.53 0.35 2.86
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 95.30 89.07 0.36 2.81
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 193.00 180.37 0.36 2.77
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 250GB 250 GB 100.00 93.46 0.37 2.68
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra Premium microSDXC 90MB/s, 200GB 200 GB 85.00 79.44 0.40 2.52
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 64GB 64 GB 27.80 25.98 0.41 2.46
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 1024GB 1024 GB 454.00 424.30 0.41 2.41
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 64GB 64 GB 28.80 26.92 0.42 2.38
CD-R Verbatim CD-R 100 @ 700MB 70 GB 32.60 30.47 0.44 2.30
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 512GB 512 GB 239.00 223.36 0.44 2.29
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 139.00 129.91 0.51 1.97
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 32GB 32 GB 18.80 17.57 0.55 1.82
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 32B 32 GB 19.50 18.22 0.57 1.76
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 82.80 77.38 0.60 1.65
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2500/1500MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 361.00 337.38 0.66 1.52
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2200/900MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 187.00 174.77 0.68 1.46
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 389.00 363.55 0.71 1.41
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 128GB 128 GB 99.70 93.18 0.73 1.37
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 120GB 120 GB 95.70 89.44 0.75 1.34
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 55.00 51.40 0.80 1.25
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 16GB 16 GB 14.90 13.93 0.87 1.15
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 33.00 30.84 0.96 1.04
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 75.00 70.09 1.10 0.91
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 256GB 256 GB 347.00 324.30 1.27 0.79
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 128GB 128 GB 175.00 163.55 1.28 0.78
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 98.50 92.06 1.44 0.70
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 8GB 8 GB 12.90 12.06 1.51 0.66
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 52.70 49.25 1.54 0.65
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 27.00 25.23 1.58 0.63
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 117.00 109.35 1.71 0.59
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 60.10 56.17 1.76 0.57
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 16GB 16 GB 36.40 34.02 2.13 0.47
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 52.70 49.25 3.08 0.32

Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 1.070000 CHF.

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Jekyll: Include partial snippets of code

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The Jekyll include tag is useful when including files or templates on a page. Combined with the highlight tag, it makes including code snippets easy. However, it will include the complete file, and often it is desirable to include only a few lines, or maybe a method. That could of course be done by simply copy/pasting the code in question into the article, but then the code gets out of sync if the example file is changed.

The basic usecase is something like this:

{% highlight java %}
    {% include src/HelloWorld.java %}
{% endhighlight %}

Ruby based plugin

A Jekyll tag to include only a section of a file would be great. As far as I can tell, that does not exist yet, so I started writing one. Unfortunately, Github Pages does not allow custom plugin for security reasons. There are work-arounds for that, but it also makes the deployment more complex, and loses the convenience of being able to edit the articles and code directly on github.com.

Sans error handling or caching, a simple implementation could look like this. It works outside Github Pages, so it’s a start.

module Jekyll
  class IncludeLines < Liquid::Tag
     Syntax = /(#{Liquid::QuotedFragment}+)\s(\d+)\s(\d+)\s\z/o
     
     def initialize(tag_name, markup, options)
       super
       if markup =~ Syntax
         @file = $1
         @startline = $2.to_i
         @endline = $3.to_i
       else
         raise "Syntax error in includelines: " + markup
       end
     end
 
     def render(context)
       lines = IO.readlines(context.evaluate(@file))
       part = lines.drop(@startline)
       part.take(@endline - @startline)
     end
 
   end
 end
 
 Liquid::Template.register_tag('includelines', Jekyll::IncludeLines)
 

Liquid slice and split

Using the Liquid capture block, it's possible to read a file and store it as a string variable. It can then be processed by Liquid instead of the plugin, and works fine with Github pages. The Liquid syntax is certainly verbose, but it gets the job done.

An initial implementation cutting the file content as a single string looked like this. However, it is far from ideal, since the character index and count will shift with any source code modifications on the included file.

{% capture filecontent %}
    {% include src/HelloWorld.java %}
{% endcapture %}

{% highlight java %}
    {{ filecontent | slice: 132, 57 }}
{% endhighlight %}

A slightly better solution uses the same idea, but operates on line numbers instead. It is almost as fragile when it comes to changes, but at least usable.

{% capture filecontent %}
    {% include src/HelloWorld.java %}
{% endcapture %}

{% assign lines = filecontent | newline_to_br | split: '<br />' %}
{% highlight java %}
    {% for line in lines offset:10 limit:5 %}{{ line }}{% endfor %}
{% endhighlight %}

A helper include file implementing this idea can be found here. It can be used like this:

{% include includelines filename='src/HelloWorld.java' start=10 count=5 %}

Include method

Ideally, it would be possible to mark the start of a line to include, and then indicate how much should be included. Improving on the line based iterator above, this helper file does that. Usage goes like this:

{% highlight java %}
    {% include includemethod filename='src/HelloWorld.java' method='test()' before=5  after=1 %}
{% endhighlight %}

It also adds options to include lines before and after the specified method, for example for comment blocks or further methods below the first. There are of course some extensions which could be made, e.g. to include multiple split sections; support other non-C like languages, etc. The linked code is under the GPL 3 license, so feel free to improve.

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Backblaze: SMART stats to predict hard drive failure

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Over the years, Backblaze has published several interesting reports and statistics on their harddrive performance and failures. In their latest post, they look at which SMART metrics they monitor and react to. They say, “when the RAW value for one of these five attributes is greater than zero, we have a reason to investigate”.

SMART 5 Reallocated Sectors Count
SMART 187 Reported Uncorrectable Errors
SMART 188 Command Timeout
SMART 197 Current Pending Sector Count
SMART 198 Uncorrectable Sector Count

They go on to point out, that although a single one of those metrics might only indicate 30% to 40% probability of a failed drive, when combined the probability increases to 76%. Furthermore, looking at multiple failed values, and their rate of increase might also help determine if a drive is about to fail. A higher rate is usually worse. Finally, they note that the the SMART 189 – High Fly Writes is another good candidate to consider, and again when looking at the rate.

On a related note, here’s a note on Google’s data on their SSD failures.

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Getting started with GitHub Pages and Jekyll

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In the beginning, there were static HTML pages, TABLE-tags, and FTP; later came dynamic sites, WordPress and other Content Management Systems; but now we are back to static pages again, albeit templated. So goes Quinn Supplee’s narrative of the move to Jekyll, Markdown and Liquid based static sites. Add in GitHub for free hosting, and it makes a very compelling offering for a small site run by tech savvy people. It’s not your web sites for dummies solution.

Enabling web page hosting from a Github repository is quick, as explained here. And setting a custom domain is a single setting on Github, and additional setting up your domain DNS. The Github Settings panel have a default example site template generator, so with that you’ll have some pages to look at in few clicks. Now you can download the generated files, modify and upload with standard git commands. (Replace username/repository with your own names).

git clone http://github.com/username/repository
git commit
git push

Github uses Jekell to statically generate the site, and this requires a special file and directory structure. It is of course possible to experiment with the files directly on Github, however it might be easier to edit and compile locally. For that, a local install of Jekyll and relevant dependencies and tools is required.

sudo apt-get install ruby ruby-dev rubygems-integration nodejs gcc make
sudo gem install jekyll jekyll-docs jekyll-feed jekyll-paginate bundler minima iconv

On older Debian (7 – Wheezy) or Ubuntu (14.04) distributions, the ruby packages where versioned incorrectly, so the 2.0 version is required for the ruby package and gem binary.

sudo apt-get install ruby2.0 ruby2.0-dev rubygems-integration nodejs ruby-mkrf gcc make
sudo gem2.0 install jekyll jekyll-docs jekyll-feed jekyll-paginate bundler minima iconv

With that in place, you can generate a new blank site, and make Jekyll serve it locally on http://127.0.0.1:4000/ . Of course, the final destination would be the Github repository.

jekyll new test --skip-bundle
cd test
jekyll serve

For more advanced options and functions, the Jekyll documentation is good. There are some Jekeyll based example sites here. In particular, Patrick Mckinley’s pagination example with source looks interesting.

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Samsung boasts about its SSDs

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In a few recent articles at Tom’s Hardware, Paul Alcorn has summarized the latest roadmap and product visions from Samsung, including an upcoming new form factor to replace the Intel M.2 connector and QLC (Quad Layer Cell) SSD that could reach 100 TB drives. Finally, Chris Ramseyer takes a look at the new Samsung 960 EVO and 960 Pro NVMe drives.

Some developments are clear: More data will be stacked in a smaller space, through 3D NAND, 16 bits QLC (Quad Layer Cell), and more dies stacked on top of each other. This will all result in lower prices per byte of storage. Obviously, it makes no sense to include a spinning disk in a laptop anymore, but the holy grail is the data center. There things are not so clear-cut. According to Alcorn’s article, Facebook is experimenting with QLC drives which could reach 100 TB. But there is of course no mention of price.

What’s interesting, is that the newer drives, which use the new NVMe based M.2 controller has reset the downwards price trend. In one of the slides, Samsung points out that SSD storage is now at 36 US cents per GB. However, the latest 960 series are almost double that, at 64 cents. (512 GB for $329; 1 TB for $629; 2 TB for $1299). In comparison, the Seagate Archive 8 TB drives cells for $249 now, is 1/20 of that, at 3 cents per GB.

In other words, Samsung has traded the 4x to 6x increase in read / write speed on the NVMe controllers for a doubling in SSD storage price. Now, Alcorn points out that there might be some margin to shave off there. Samsung has almost half the world market on both SSD drive and total SSD capacity shipments right now, but the competition is ramping up. That we will see lower prices per byte on SSD in the next year is a given.

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QNAP NAS and autofs auto mount

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After considering multiple options to cover a HTPC and a NAS, I finally went with the combined “living room” QNAP HS-251+ NAS earlier this year. I’ll leave the reviews to other sites, and just summarize the main features:

  • 2 bay 3.5″ or 2.5″ HDD or SSD
  • Intel Celeron 2GHz Quad core; 2 GB DDR3 RAM
  • 2x 1Gb RJ-45 ports; 2x USB 2.0; 2x USB 3.0
  • 1x HDMI
  • Fan-less
  • Simple remote control
  • Multiple in-house and external apps
  • Good support for Kodi (aka. XBMC)
  • Linux based 32-bit OS, with most common tools and network services available, including SSHD, NFS, SMB, FTPS, rsync.

NFS

Setting up NFS shares on the NAS side is straight forward through the web based UI under “Control Panel”. You probably want to create one or more users which match your own client (e.g. laptop) user, and possibly also related group. All this can be achieved through the UI, however, for setting specific user IDs, SSH into the NAS (using the admin account) and edit /etc/passwd and /etc/group. If the IDs are changed, you’ll also have to update /mnt/HDA_ROOT/.config/nfssetting.

/etc/passwd
david:x:1001:8008:Linux User,,david,:/share/homes/david:/bin/sh
john:x:1000:8008:Linux User,,john,:/share/homes/john:/bin/sh

/etc/group
foobar:x:8008:david,john

The reason for changing the user or group IDs manually might be to match existing IDs on the client machines. In that case, you might also have to provide this option, to make those IDs are actually used by the NAS. This setting is not permanent, so if the NAS is restarted frequently, you might consider a start-up script solution.
echo N > /sys/module/nfs/parameters/nfs4_disable_idmapping

The two relevant configuration files for the NFS setup on the NAS are /etc/exports and /mnt/HDA_ROOT/.config/nfssetting. They will be automatically configured by the UI, however some manual tweaking might be needed. I ended up with something like this, for two machines (with DNS names”laptop”, “desktop” – you can also use IP address) and two shares (“pictures”, “video”). The user (UID) and group (GID) ids will match what’s seen in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files above.

/etc/exports

"/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures" laptop(rw,async,no_subtree_check,insecure,no_root_squash) desktop(rw,async,no_subtree_check,insecure,no_root_squash)
"/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video" laptop(rw,async,no_subtree_check,insecure,no_root_squash) desktop(rw,async,no_subtree_check,insecure,no_root_squash)

/mnt/HDA_ROOT/.config/nfssetting
"/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public" *(rw,async,no_root_squash,insecure)
[Global]
Version = 4.2.0
[Access]
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public = FALSE
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures = TRUE
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video = TRUE
[AllowIP]
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public = *
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures = laptop,desktop
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video = laptop,desktop
[Permission]
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public = rw
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures = rw,rw
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video = rw,rw
[SquashOption]
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public = no_root_squash
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures = no_root_squash,no_root_squash
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video = no_root_squash,no_root_squash
[AnonUID]
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public = 65534
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures = 1001,1000
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video = 1001,1000
[AnonGID]
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/Public = 65534
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/pictures = 8008,8008
/share/CACHEDEV1_DATA/video = 8008,8008

After making any changes to the NFS config, restart the service:
/etc/init.d/nfs restart

Client side and autofs

On the client, e.g. laptop or desktop, you’d want to point your NFS mount configuration to the shares created above. However, since either NAS or more likely personal machine will be rebooted, it is useful to configure this through autofs instead of the traditional /etc/fstab config. That way, the shares will be mounted and re-mounted on demand. It will also avoid long waits at boot and shutdown of the client machines.

First, make sure the NFS and autofs packages are installed:
apt-get install portmap nfs-common autofs cifs-utils

Edit /etc/auto.master and add the following line, which specify local mount point, and specific configuration files. Note that that has to match with your setup, so you might want to change the names here. As long as the /mnt directory and config file match, you can use whatever names you like.

/etc/auto.master
/mnt/qnap /etc/auto.qnap

The share specific configuration is then added in the file referenced above. It assumes you’ve named the shares on the NAS “pictures” and “video”. It also assumes the DNS name of the NAS is “qnap” (or you can use an IP here). Finally, it assumes that the shared group is called “foobar”, which should match the GID 8008 above. That GID should also be present on the client machine.

/etc/auto.qnap
pictures -fstype=nfs,rw,soft,tcp,nolock,gid=foobar qnap:/pictures
video -fstype=nfs,rw,soft,tcp,nolock,gid=foobar qnap:/video

Finally, after making changes to the NFS / autofs confg, restart the service:
/etc/init.d/autofs restart

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Storage prices

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As predicted in January, there have indeed been a number of exciting releases and announcements so far this year: Samsung finally launched their 15TB SSD; Intel brought 16nm TLC SSD to market; SanDisk (now owned by Western Digital) continue to launch faster larger SD cards; and a new large and heavy 8 TB USB 3.1 C external drive from Seagate was just made available.

On the list below, there are also a few changes, including some new 8 TB disks from Western Digital. Prices are coming down a bit, but also due to currency fluctuations. Several 8 TB spinning disks are now very competitively priced.

SSD drives are also coming down in price, and starting last year, more drives are now becoming cheaper per byte than optical media. That is of course mainly due to the fact that there has been no development in the latter technology, however, it’s a milestone worth noting since the next is in fact price parity with certain spinning disks. Where the gap has been 10x for the last decade (and still is for the cheapest HDD), it is now closing in more rapidly. Between the cheapest SSD byte and most expensive HDD byte the factor is now 3x-4x.

Media Type Product Capacity Price CHF Price Euros Euros / GB GBs / Euro
HDD-SMR Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB 8000 GB 259.00 237.61 0.03 33.67
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 132.00 121.10 0.03 33.03
HDD Seagate Desktop 4TB 4000 GB 133.00 122.02 0.03 32.78
SMR External 3.5 Seagate Backup Plus Desktop 8TB 8000 GB 269.00 246.79 0.03 32.42
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 135.00 123.85 0.03 32.30
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 8TB, USB3 8000 GB 274.00 251.38 0.03 31.82
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 6TB, USB3 6000 GB 209.00 191.74 0.03 31.29
HDD Western Digital Green 3TB 3000 GB 106.00 97.25 0.03 30.85
HDD Western Digital Green 4TB 4000 GB 148.00 135.78 0.03 29.46
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 115.00 105.50 0.04 28.43
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 116.00 106.42 0.04 28.19
HDD Western Digital Red 3TB 3000 GB 120.00 110.09 0.04 27.25
HDD Western Digital Red 4TB 4000 GB 165.00 151.38 0.04 26.42
HDD-He Western Digital Red 8TB 8000 GB 339.00 311.01 0.04 25.72
HDD Western Digital Green 2TB 2000 GB 84.80 77.80 0.04 25.71
HDD Western Digital Green 6TB 6000 GB 255.00 233.94 0.04 25.65
HDD Western Digital Red 5TB 5000 GB 214.00 196.33 0.04 25.47
HDD Western Digital Red 6TB 6000 GB 259.00 237.61 0.04 25.25
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 91.00 83.49 0.04 23.96
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 142.00 130.28 0.04 23.03
HDD Western Digital Red 2TB 2000 GB 99.00 90.83 0.05 22.02
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 99.00 90.83 0.05 22.02
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 64.00 58.72 0.06 17.03
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He6 6TB 6000 GB 436.00 400.00 0.07 15.00
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 73.00 66.97 0.07 14.93
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R SL 10 @ 25GB 250 GB 19.00 17.43 0.07 14.34
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He8 8TB 8000 GB 724.00 664.22 0.08 12.04
DVD-R Verbatim 16x DVD-R 100 @ 4,7GB 470 GB 46.00 42.20 0.09 11.14
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R DL 10 @ 50GB 500 GB 51.90 47.61 0.10 10.50
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 50 @ 8,5GB 425 GB 71.00 65.14 0.15 6.52
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 25 @ 8,5GB 213 GB 39.00 35.78 0.17 5.94
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 480GB 480 GB 125.00 114.68 0.24 4.19
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 240GB 240 GB 69.10 63.39 0.26 3.79
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 288.00 264.22 0.26 3.78
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 1TB 1000 GB 299.00 274.31 0.27 3.65
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 155.00 142.20 0.28 3.52
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 500GB 500 GB 166.00 152.29 0.30 3.28
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 339.00 311.01 0.31 3.22
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 181.00 166.06 0.33 3.01
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 256GB 256 GB 96.90 88.90 0.35 2.88
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 250GB 250 GB 99.00 90.83 0.36 2.75
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 99.30 91.10 0.36 2.74
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 64GB 64 GB 25.80 23.67 0.37 2.70
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 1024GB 1024 GB 436.00 400.00 0.39 2.56
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 64GB 64 GB 28.80 26.42 0.41 2.42
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 512GB 512 GB 241.00 221.10 0.43 2.32
CD-R Verbatim CD-R 100 @ 700MB 70 GB 34.50 31.65 0.45 2.21
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra Premium microSDXC 90MB/s, 200GB 200 GB 99.00 90.83 0.45 2.20
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 134.00 122.94 0.48 2.08
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 32GB 32 GB 17.10 15.69 0.49 2.04
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 144.00 132.11 0.52 1.94
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 32B 32 GB 19.50 17.89 0.56 1.79
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 79.10 72.57 0.57 1.76
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 120GB 120 GB 79.00 72.48 0.60 1.66
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2500/1500MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 359.00 329.36 0.64 1.55
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 371.00 340.37 0.66 1.50
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 128GB 128 GB 97.40 89.36 0.70 1.43
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2200/900MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 195.00 178.90 0.70 1.43
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 16GB 16 GB 12.90 11.83 0.74 1.35
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro microSDXC, Class 10, 90/95MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 52.00 47.71 0.75 1.34
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 55.00 50.46 0.79 1.27
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 33.00 30.28 0.95 1.06
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 75.00 68.81 1.08 0.93
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 8GB 8 GB 10.90 10.00 1.25 0.80
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 128GB 128 GB 175.00 160.55 1.25 0.80
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 256GB 256 GB 351.00 322.02 1.26 0.79
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 98.50 90.37 1.41 0.71
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 52.30 47.98 1.50 0.67
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 27.00 24.77 1.55 0.65
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 116.00 106.42 1.66 0.60
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 59.10 54.22 1.69 0.59
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 75.10 68.90 2.15 0.46
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 16GB 16 GB 39.20 35.96 2.25 0.44
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 49.70 45.60 2.85 0.35

Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 1.090000 CHF.

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Raspberry Pi 3 with Wifi and Bluetooth on sale now for $35

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The Raspberry Pi Foundation is not holding back. Since the original Raspberry Pi B launched four years ago, there has been a steady stream of new devices and upgrades: The much improved Raspberry Pi 2 came out two years ago, and it was just before Christmas that the tiny form-factor Pi Zero launched. Today, they’ve announced another upgrade in the form of Raspberry Pi 3 B, also selling for $35.

Apart from an upgrade to a 1.2GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 CPU, the most exiting news is the integrated 802.11n wireless LAN and Bluetooth 4.1. Ideally, it means that no other external devices are needed, assuming that a Bluetooth keyboard works (sometimes they can be flaky).

This will likely be a hit, so expect to wait for some time for stocks to fill up with the different retailers. And of course, the stated price might not be obtainable if buying locally.


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Storage prices

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There are number of new interesting storage alternatives on the market these days, and more are set to arrive throughout 2016. The large 8 TB SMR Seagate drives, both internal and external, top the list as most affordable per byte. They are followed by various traditional 3 and 4 TB drives. At the bottom amongst the HDD, we find the helium filled HGST drives. A 10 TB SMR version is expected to reach the market soon.

In SSD land, the picture is reversed, where it is the largest drives which gives you most capacity per coin, at continuously decreasing prices. Added to the mix, is the new NVM-M.2 motherboard socket standard, which attaches directly to the PCI bus. This gives vastly improved performance, at up to 5x read/write speeds of the traditional SATA3 connection.

Finally, amongst flash card and stick storage, there is similar prices decrease as SSD, and also increase in max size. The biggest SD cards are now at 512 GB.

Media Type Product Capacity Price CHF Price Euros Euros / GB GBs / Euro
HDD-SMR Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB 8000 GB 238.00 216.36 0.03 36.97
SMR External 3.5 Seagate Backup Plus Desktop 8TB 8000 GB 274.00 249.09 0.03 32.12
HDD Seagate Desktop 4TB 4000 GB 139.00 126.36 0.03 31.65
HDD Western Digital Green 4TB 4000 GB 144.00 130.91 0.03 30.56
HDD Western Digital Green 3TB 3000 GB 110.00 100.00 0.03 30.00
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 149.00 135.45 0.03 29.53
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 154.00 140.00 0.04 28.57
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 123.00 111.82 0.04 26.83
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 6TB, USB3 6000 GB 248.00 225.45 0.04 26.61
HDD Western Digital Red 3TB 3000 GB 125.00 113.64 0.04 26.40
HDD Western Digital Green 2TB 2000 GB 83.60 76.00 0.04 26.32
HDD Western Digital Green 6TB 6000 GB 253.00 230.00 0.04 26.09
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 130.00 118.18 0.04 25.38
HDD Western Digital Red 5TB 5000 GB 229.00 208.18 0.04 24.02
HDD Western Digital Red 6TB 6000 GB 275.00 250.00 0.04 24.00
HDD Western Digital Red 4TB 4000 GB 184.00 167.27 0.04 23.91
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 98.40 89.45 0.04 22.36
HDD Western Digital Red 2TB 2000 GB 103.00 93.64 0.05 21.36
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 155.00 140.91 0.05 21.29
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 111.00 100.91 0.05 19.82
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 68.20 62.00 0.06 16.13
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 73.20 66.55 0.07 15.03
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He6 6TB 6000 GB 441.00 400.91 0.07 14.97
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R SL 10 @ 25GB 250 GB 23.70 21.55 0.09 11.60
DVD-R Verbatim 16x DVD-R 100 @ 4,7GB 470 GB 46.00 41.82 0.09 11.24
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R DL 10 @ 50GB 500 GB 50.00 45.45 0.09 11.00
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He8 8TB 8000 GB 875.00 795.45 0.10 10.06
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 50 @ 8,5GB 425 GB 73.30 66.64 0.16 6.38
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 25 @ 8,5GB 213 GB 39.00 35.45 0.17 5.99
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 1TB 1000 GB 336.00 305.45 0.31 3.27
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 169.00 153.64 0.31 3.25
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 344.00 312.73 0.31 3.20
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 480GB 480 GB 168.00 152.73 0.32 3.14
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 88.00 80.00 0.32 3.13
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 352.00 320.00 0.32 3.13
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 500GB 500 GB 177.00 160.91 0.32 3.11
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 182.00 165.45 0.33 3.02
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 256GB 256 GB 96.90 88.09 0.34 2.91
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 250GB 250 GB 97.20 88.36 0.35 2.83
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 240GB 240 GB 98.10 89.18 0.37 2.69
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 110.00 100.00 0.40 2.50
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 1024GB 1024 GB 469.00 426.36 0.42 2.40
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 64GB 64 GB 29.80 27.09 0.42 2.36
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 512GB 512 GB 247.00 224.55 0.44 2.28
CD-R Verbatim CD-R 100 @ 700MB 70 GB 34.90 31.73 0.45 2.21
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 140.00 127.27 0.50 2.01
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 32GB 32 GB 18.70 17.00 0.53 1.88
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 120GB 120 GB 73.60 66.91 0.56 1.79
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 161.00 146.36 0.57 1.75
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2500/1500MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 345.00 313.64 0.61 1.63
SDXC SanDisk Extreme SDXC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 93.40 84.91 0.66 1.51
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 94.00 85.45 0.67 1.50
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 128GB 128 GB 97.30 88.45 0.69 1.45
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2200/900MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 199.00 180.91 0.71 1.42
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 16GB 16 GB 12.90 11.73 0.73 1.36
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 419.00 380.91 0.74 1.34
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra Premium microSDXC 90MB/s, 200GB 200 GB 168.00 152.73 0.76 1.31
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro microSDXC, Class 10, 90/95MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 57.60 52.36 0.82 1.22
SDHC SanDisk Extreme SDHC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 29.00 26.36 0.82 1.21
microSDHC SanDisk Ultra microSDHC Android, Class 10, 48MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 30.60 27.82 0.87 1.15
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 62.00 56.36 0.88 1.14
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 38.10 34.64 1.08 0.92
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 8GB 8 GB 10.00 9.09 1.14 0.88
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 256GB 256 GB 342.00 310.91 1.21 0.82
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 128GB 128 GB 187.00 170.00 1.33 0.75
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 98.50 89.55 1.40 0.71
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 52.00 47.27 1.48 0.68
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 114.00 103.64 1.62 0.62
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 30.70 27.91 1.74 0.57
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 127.00 115.45 1.80 0.55
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 64.00 58.18 1.82 0.55
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 76.20 69.27 2.16 0.46
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 16GB 16 GB 43.00 39.09 2.44 0.41
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 50.10 45.55 2.85 0.35

Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 1.100000 CHF.

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