DealExtreme orders

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ESP8266 galore

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More than a year ago, I tried out the ESP8266, but didn’t get very far. The scene and products have evolved a lot since then, and today it’s as easy to use and develop with the ESP8266 as with the Arduino. Some shields are also coming online, although there are no common form factors yet.

DealExtreme stocks a number of different boards and chips. Among them, the most interesting are the various boards from Wemos. They have a two form factors: The “D1″, a rather large board which matches the Arduino Uno layout and header pins; and the neat and small “D1 min” at only 34×25 mm. What makes the latter very appealing, is a range of small shields which stack on top of each other, just like the old Arduino.

There are already several interesting shields available from Wemos. Including a temperature sensor; 64×48 pixel OLED display; 220 V relay; motor driver; SD card; battery connector; single button; single LED; and a DIY “proto board”. These are not available from DX, and are best ordered from Wemo’s AliExpress shop. Please note, the ones linked here do not have the header pins soldered, so a bit of manual soldering work is required.

 

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Storage prices

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As predicted in January, there have indeed been a number of exciting releases and announcements so far this year: Samsung finally launched their 15TB SSD; Intel brought 16nm TLC SSD to market; SanDisk (now owned by Western Digital) continue to launch faster larger SD cards; and a new large and heavy 8 TB USB 3.1 C external drive from Seagate was just made available.

On the list below, there are also a few changes, including some new 8 TB disks from Western Digital. Prices are coming down a bit, but also due to currency fluctuations. Several 8 TB spinning disks are now very competitively priced.

SSD drives are also coming down in price, and starting last year, more drives are now becoming cheaper per byte than optical media. That is of course mainly due to the fact that there has been no development in the latter technology, however, it’s a milestone worth noting since the next is in fact price parity with certain spinning disks. Where the gap has been 10x for the last decade (and still is for the cheapest HDD), it is now closing in more rapidly. Between the cheapest SSD byte and most expensive HDD byte the factor is now 3x-4x.

Media Type Product Capacity Price CHF Price Euros Euros / GB GBs / Euro
HDD-SMR Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB 8000 GB 259.00 237.61 0.03 33.67
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 132.00 121.10 0.03 33.03
HDD Seagate Desktop 4TB 4000 GB 133.00 122.02 0.03 32.78
SMR External 3.5 Seagate Backup Plus Desktop 8TB 8000 GB 269.00 246.79 0.03 32.42
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 135.00 123.85 0.03 32.30
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 8TB, USB3 8000 GB 274.00 251.38 0.03 31.82
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 6TB, USB3 6000 GB 209.00 191.74 0.03 31.29
HDD Western Digital Green 3TB 3000 GB 106.00 97.25 0.03 30.85
HDD Western Digital Green 4TB 4000 GB 148.00 135.78 0.03 29.46
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 115.00 105.50 0.04 28.43
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 116.00 106.42 0.04 28.19
HDD Western Digital Red 3TB 3000 GB 120.00 110.09 0.04 27.25
HDD Western Digital Red 4TB 4000 GB 165.00 151.38 0.04 26.42
HDD-He Western Digital Red 8TB 8000 GB 339.00 311.01 0.04 25.72
HDD Western Digital Green 2TB 2000 GB 84.80 77.80 0.04 25.71
HDD Western Digital Green 6TB 6000 GB 255.00 233.94 0.04 25.65
HDD Western Digital Red 5TB 5000 GB 214.00 196.33 0.04 25.47
HDD Western Digital Red 6TB 6000 GB 259.00 237.61 0.04 25.25
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 91.00 83.49 0.04 23.96
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 142.00 130.28 0.04 23.03
HDD Western Digital Red 2TB 2000 GB 99.00 90.83 0.05 22.02
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 99.00 90.83 0.05 22.02
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 64.00 58.72 0.06 17.03
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He6 6TB 6000 GB 436.00 400.00 0.07 15.00
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 73.00 66.97 0.07 14.93
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R SL 10 @ 25GB 250 GB 19.00 17.43 0.07 14.34
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He8 8TB 8000 GB 724.00 664.22 0.08 12.04
DVD-R Verbatim 16x DVD-R 100 @ 4,7GB 470 GB 46.00 42.20 0.09 11.14
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R DL 10 @ 50GB 500 GB 51.90 47.61 0.10 10.50
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 50 @ 8,5GB 425 GB 71.00 65.14 0.15 6.52
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 25 @ 8,5GB 213 GB 39.00 35.78 0.17 5.94
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 480GB 480 GB 125.00 114.68 0.24 4.19
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 240GB 240 GB 69.10 63.39 0.26 3.79
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 288.00 264.22 0.26 3.78
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 1TB 1000 GB 299.00 274.31 0.27 3.65
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 155.00 142.20 0.28 3.52
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 500GB 500 GB 166.00 152.29 0.30 3.28
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 339.00 311.01 0.31 3.22
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 181.00 166.06 0.33 3.01
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 256GB 256 GB 96.90 88.90 0.35 2.88
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 250GB 250 GB 99.00 90.83 0.36 2.75
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 99.30 91.10 0.36 2.74
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 64GB 64 GB 25.80 23.67 0.37 2.70
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 1024GB 1024 GB 436.00 400.00 0.39 2.56
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 64GB 64 GB 28.80 26.42 0.41 2.42
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 512GB 512 GB 241.00 221.10 0.43 2.32
CD-R Verbatim CD-R 100 @ 700MB 70 GB 34.50 31.65 0.45 2.21
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra Premium microSDXC 90MB/s, 200GB 200 GB 99.00 90.83 0.45 2.20
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 134.00 122.94 0.48 2.08
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 32GB 32 GB 17.10 15.69 0.49 2.04
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 144.00 132.11 0.52 1.94
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 32B 32 GB 19.50 17.89 0.56 1.79
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 79.10 72.57 0.57 1.76
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 120GB 120 GB 79.00 72.48 0.60 1.66
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2500/1500MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 359.00 329.36 0.64 1.55
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 371.00 340.37 0.66 1.50
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 128GB 128 GB 97.40 89.36 0.70 1.43
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2200/900MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 195.00 178.90 0.70 1.43
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 16GB 16 GB 12.90 11.83 0.74 1.35
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro microSDXC, Class 10, 90/95MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 52.00 47.71 0.75 1.34
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 55.00 50.46 0.79 1.27
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 33.00 30.28 0.95 1.06
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 75.00 68.81 1.08 0.93
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 8GB 8 GB 10.90 10.00 1.25 0.80
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 128GB 128 GB 175.00 160.55 1.25 0.80
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 256GB 256 GB 351.00 322.02 1.26 0.79
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 98.50 90.37 1.41 0.71
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 52.30 47.98 1.50 0.67
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 27.00 24.77 1.55 0.65
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 116.00 106.42 1.66 0.60
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 59.10 54.22 1.69 0.59
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 75.10 68.90 2.15 0.46
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 16GB 16 GB 39.20 35.96 2.25 0.44
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 49.70 45.60 2.85 0.35

Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 1.090000 CHF.

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DIY Arduino Debug Shield

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Debugging with LEDs; it’s probably even more primitive than debugging with printf statements. However, to get a very immediate feedback on what’s happening, or which pins are in use, it can be useful. So what better way then than a ~$2 homemade shield to pop on top of your existing project.

DealExtreme supplies all the parts needed: A versatile prototyping shield board with holes and wires in sensible locations; a bag of assorted LEDs; resistors; and header pins. (The board and headers in this project used 6x and 8x header pins, to fit with the older Duemilanove. The Uno another other boards have slightly different pin layouts, so plan ahead).

Now, I’m not an expert at soldering, nor product design, but this shield does the job, and already helped in programming my next project. Lesson learnt: Lay out the components all the way before heading off with the iron. I should have gone with the 3mm LEDs all the way. Or, maybe surface mount could have worked. Next time.

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Hello World! from the UG-2864 “OEL Display Module” / SSD1306

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There is a wide range of cute small OLED (organic LED, aka. Organic Electro-Luminescence) display modules around. Adafruit has a range, the same or similar can also be found all over eBay and Amazon, and of course from DealExtreme. They are available in modules for the Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or other micro controllers. Some are based on basic DATA, CONTROL, LOCK interfaces, while others implement the SPI or I2C bus protocols. The OLED makes for a bright high contrast wide viewing angle screen. Most are monochrome, while a few come with 16 bit colors.

I got the $7 0.96 inch 128*64 pixel I2C version from Deal Extreme. It is indeed small, but also very nice and sharp. Even small fonts are easily readable. It was easy to get up and working with the Arduino UNO, although with a few gotchas to watch out for. The I2C interface makes it very easy to hook up, with only two wires in addition to power (5V and ground).

For background, this GeekOnFire page goes into detail about the memory addressing and low level commands. Further details can be found in the Univision Technology display (UG-2864HLBEG01, UG-2864HSWEG01) and Solomon Systech driver chip (SSD1306) data sheets. See also this note which compares the SPI and I2C protocols.

Scan and Detect

There are also multiple drivers and graphics libraries around, some of which are available directly through the Arduino IDE Library Manager. I’ll go through the details below, but before we get there, make sure the module is hooked up correctly and detected. See the Arduino Wire library reference for which pins to hook up. It varies based on Arduino board and version.

Note, for the Arduino Uno, the pins are Analog 4 and Analog 5.

Once plugged in, copy the sketch from this simple I2C Scanner, and upload. Open the Serial Monitor, and observe something like “I2C device found at address 0x3C“.

Take great care to note the exact address. It might be either 0x3C or 0x3D, and the libraries below will have to be modified accordingly.

U8glib

The U8glib library supports a long list of different LEDs. It is available directly from within the Arduino IDE Library Manager by searching for “U8glib”. Once installed, open the Examples list, and try the “HelloWorld” example.

However, before uploading, you need to uncomment the correct display. In my case, it was around line 90, and looked like:

U8GLIB_SSD1306_128X64 u8g(U8G_I2C_OPT_NONE|U8G_I2C_OPT_DEV_0); // I2C / TWI

Once uploaded, the display should show “Hello World!”. Also try out the other examples, like the GraphicsTest, but make sure to always uncomment the correct initialization line.

Adafruit

The Adafruit library focuses on the displays they offer, and comes in two parts, the SSD1306 driver and the Adafruit Gfx library. Searching for “Adafruit SSD1306″ and “Adafruit gfx” in the Arduino IDE Library Manager should give perfect hits.

The Adafruit driver and examples take some custom modifications before they work, though. First, in the file Adafruit_SSD1306/Adafruit_SSD1306.h, make sure the following lines are uncommented and correct according to the display you have (see the scanner section above). Make sure the other similar lines above or below are commented out.

#define SSD1306_I2C_ADDRESS 0x3C

#define SSD1306_128_64

Secondly, in the ssd1306_128x64_i2c example sketch, again make sure that the address is defined correctly, according to what the scanner said. Within the setup() method, you will see this line, which you might have to modify:

display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C);

GeekOnFire

Finally, the GeekOnFire library is yet another easy wait to get started with the OLED display. It is not available in the Arduino Library Manager, but can just as easily be downloaded from their site, and installed from the Arduino IDE through its ZIP file.

As with the Adafruit library, the I2C address has to be modified, and a similar initialization line can be found within the setup() method of their examples:

GOFoled.init(0x3C);

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RFID tag reading with the RDM630 module

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To read RFID tags with an Arudino is easy using the RDM630 card reader module (also sold as RDM6300 in a slightly different version). It’s available from DealExtrme, including a pack of 10 RFID cards, or keychain fobs. These are all based on 125 kHz cards and reading, using the EM4100 protocol. (That is important, since there are many different frequencies and protocols used under the same umbrella name RFID).

John Boxall at tronixstuff.com has an excellent beginner’s tutorial on using the module. Hooking up the module is easy, needing only +5V and ground, plus a single pin (lower left on the RDM6300) to a digital pin on the Arduino. He opts for using SoftwareSerial so he can define the incoming RX data pin to something else than the standard pin 0. That way, it does not interfere with the serial transfer while uploading new sketches.

Reading from the module then boils down to reading from the SoftwareSerial class. In essence, it looks some like this, when surrounding boilerplate is removed:

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial RFID(2, 3); // RX, TX

// setup
RFID.begin(9600);

// loop
if (RFID.available() > 0) {
  int byte = RFID.read();
}

He goes on to implement some convenience methods which parse the incoming numbers and compare them to a whitelist of accepted cards.

The only missing feature I had wished for in this reader, is to detect multiple cards at once. As far as I understand, that is not possible, and only more expensive readers (or possibly other protocols) can do so.

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Raspberry Pi 3 with Wifi and Bluetooth on sale now for $35

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The Raspberry Pi Foundation is not holding back. Since the original Raspberry Pi B launched four years ago, there has been a steady stream of new devices and upgrades: The much improved Raspberry Pi 2 came out two years ago, and it was just before Christmas that the tiny form-factor Pi Zero launched. Today, they’ve announced another upgrade in the form of Raspberry Pi 3 B, also selling for $35.

Apart from an upgrade to a 1.2GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 CPU, the most exiting news is the integrated 802.11n wireless LAN and Bluetooth 4.1. Ideally, it means that no other external devices are needed, assuming that a Bluetooth keyboard works (sometimes they can be flaky).

This will likely be a hit, so expect to wait for some time for stocks to fill up with the different retailers. And of course, the stated price might not be obtainable if buying locally.


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Let’s Encrypt TLS certificate setup for Apache on Debian 7

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Through Let’s Encrypt, anybody can now easily obtain and install a free TSL (or SSL) certificate on their web site. The basic use case for a single host is very simple and straight forward to set up as seen here. For multiple virtual hosts, it is simply a case of rinse and repeat.

On older distributions, a bit more effort is required. E.g. on Debian 7 (Wheezy), the required version of the Augeas library (libaugeas0, augeas-lenses) is not available, so the edits to the Apache config files have to be managed by hand. Furthermore, for transitioning from an old HTTP based server, you need to configure the redirects for any old links which still might hard code “http” in the URL. Finally, there’s some security decisions to consider when selecting which encryption protocols and ciphers to support.

Installation and setup

Because the installer has only been packaged for newer distributions so far, a manual download is required. The initial execution of the letsencrypt-auto binary will install further dependencies.

sudo apt-get install git
git clone https://github.com/letsencrypt/letsencrypt /usr/local/letsencrypt
 
cd /usr/local/letsencrypt
./letsencrypt-auto --help

To acquire the certificates independently of the running Apache web server, first shut it down, and use the stand-alone option for letsencrypt-auto. Replace the email and domain name options with the correct values.

apache2ctl stop
 
./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone --email johndoe@example.com -d example.com -d www.example.com

Unless specified on the command line as above, there will be a prompt to enter a contact email, and to agree to the terms of service. Afterwards, four new files will be created:

/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem
/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem
/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem

If you don’t have automated regular backup of /etc, now is a good time to at least backup /etc/letsencrypt and /etc/apache2.

In the Apache config for the virtual host, add a new section (or a new file) for the TSL/SSL port 443. The important new lines in the HTTPS section use the files created above. Please note, this example is for an older Apache version, typically available on Debian 7 Wheezy. See these notes for newer versions.

# This will change when Apache is upgraded to >2.4.8
# See https://letsencrypt.readthedocs.org/en/latest/using.html#where-are-my-certificates
 
SSLEngine on
 
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem

To automatically redirect links which have hard coded http, add something like this to the old port *.80 section.

#Redirrect from http to https
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R,L]

While editing the virtual site configuration, it can be useful to watch out for the logging format string. Typically the logging formatter “combined” is used. However, this does not indicate which protocol was used to serve the page. To show the port number used (which implies the protocol), change to “vhost_combined” instead. For example:

CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/example_com-access.log vhost_combined

To finish, optionally edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf, and add the following line to the SSL section. It enables multiple named virtual hosts over SSL, but will not work on old Windows XP systems. Tough luck.

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
  NameVirtualHost *:443
  Listen 443
</IfModule>

Finally, restart Apache to activate all the changes.

apache2ctl restart

Verification and encryption ciphers

SSL Labs has an excellent and comprehensive online tool to verify your certificate setup. Fill in the domain name field there, or replace your site name in the following URL, and wait a couple of minutes for the report to generate. It will give you a detailed overview of your setup, what works, and what is recommended to change.

https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=example.com

Ideally, you’ll get a grade A as shown in the image below. However, a few more adjustments might be required to get there. It typically has to do with the protocols and ciphers the web server is configured to accept and use. This is of course a moving target as security and cryptography research and attacks evolve. Right now, there are two main considerations to make: All the old SSL protocol versions are broken and obsolete, so should be disabled. Secondly, there’s an attack on the RC4 cipher, but disabling that is a compromise, albeit old, between its insecurity and the “BEAST” attack. Thus, disabling RC4 now seems to be preferred.

Taking all this into account, the recommended configuration for Apache and OpenSSL as it stands excludes all SSL versions, as well as RC4 versions. This should result in a forward secrecy configuration. Again, this is a moving target, so this will have to be updated in the future.

To make these changes, edit the Apache SSL mod file /etc/apache2/mods-available/ssl.conf directly, or update the relevant virtual host site config file with the following lines.


SSLHonorCipherOrder on
 
SSLCipherSuite "EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384 EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+SHA384 EECDH+aRSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+RC4 EECDH EDH+aRSA RC4 !aNULL !eNULL !LOW !3DES !MD5 !EXP !PSK !SRP !DSS !RC4 !ECDHE-RSA-RC4-SHA"
 
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3

Restart Apache, and regenerate the SSL Labs report. Hopefully, it will give you a grade A.


 
 

Final considerations

Even with all the configuration above in place, the all-green TSL/SSL security lock icon in the browser URL bar, as seen below right, might be elusive. Instead a yellow warning like the on in the image to left might show. This could stem from legacy URLs which have hard coded the http protocol, both to the internal site and external resources like images, scripts. It’s a matter of either using relative links, excluding the protocol and host altogether, absolute site links, inferring the protocol by not specifying it, or hard coding it. Examples:

<img src="blog_pics/ssl_secure.png">
 
<img src="/blog_pics/ssl_secure.png">
 
<img src="//i.creativecommons.org/l/by-sa/3.0/88x31.png">
 
<img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-sa/3.0/88x31.png">

On a blog like this, it certainly makes sense to put in some effort to update static pages, and make sure that new articles are formatted correctly. However, going through all the hundreds of old articles might not be worth it. When they roll off the main page, the green icon will also show here.

 
 

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Storage prices

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There are number of new interesting storage alternatives on the market these days, and more are set to arrive throughout 2016. The large 8 TB SMR Seagate drives, both internal and external, top the list as most affordable per byte. They are followed by various traditional 3 and 4 TB drives. At the bottom amongst the HDD, we find the helium filled HGST drives. A 10 TB SMR version is expected to reach the market soon.

In SSD land, the picture is reversed, where it is the largest drives which gives you most capacity per coin, at continuously decreasing prices. Added to the mix, is the new NVM-M.2 motherboard socket standard, which attaches directly to the PCI bus. This gives vastly improved performance, at up to 5x read/write speeds of the traditional SATA3 connection.

Finally, amongst flash card and stick storage, there is similar prices decrease as SSD, and also increase in max size. The biggest SD cards are now at 512 GB.

Media Type Product Capacity Price CHF Price Euros Euros / GB GBs / Euro
HDD-SMR Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB 8000 GB 238.00 216.36 0.03 36.97
SMR External 3.5 Seagate Backup Plus Desktop 8TB 8000 GB 274.00 249.09 0.03 32.12
HDD Seagate Desktop 4TB 4000 GB 139.00 126.36 0.03 31.65
HDD Western Digital Green 4TB 4000 GB 144.00 130.91 0.03 30.56
HDD Western Digital Green 3TB 3000 GB 110.00 100.00 0.03 30.00
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 149.00 135.45 0.03 29.53
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 154.00 140.00 0.04 28.57
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 123.00 111.82 0.04 26.83
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 6TB, USB3 6000 GB 248.00 225.45 0.04 26.61
HDD Western Digital Red 3TB 3000 GB 125.00 113.64 0.04 26.40
HDD Western Digital Green 2TB 2000 GB 83.60 76.00 0.04 26.32
HDD Western Digital Green 6TB 6000 GB 253.00 230.00 0.04 26.09
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 130.00 118.18 0.04 25.38
HDD Western Digital Red 5TB 5000 GB 229.00 208.18 0.04 24.02
HDD Western Digital Red 6TB 6000 GB 275.00 250.00 0.04 24.00
HDD Western Digital Red 4TB 4000 GB 184.00 167.27 0.04 23.91
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 98.40 89.45 0.04 22.36
HDD Western Digital Red 2TB 2000 GB 103.00 93.64 0.05 21.36
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 155.00 140.91 0.05 21.29
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 111.00 100.91 0.05 19.82
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 68.20 62.00 0.06 16.13
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 73.20 66.55 0.07 15.03
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He6 6TB 6000 GB 441.00 400.91 0.07 14.97
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R SL 10 @ 25GB 250 GB 23.70 21.55 0.09 11.60
DVD-R Verbatim 16x DVD-R 100 @ 4,7GB 470 GB 46.00 41.82 0.09 11.24
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R DL 10 @ 50GB 500 GB 50.00 45.45 0.09 11.00
HDD-He Hitachi Ultrastar He8 8TB 8000 GB 875.00 795.45 0.10 10.06
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 50 @ 8,5GB 425 GB 73.30 66.64 0.16 6.38
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 25 @ 8,5GB 213 GB 39.00 35.45 0.17 5.99
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 1TB 1000 GB 336.00 305.45 0.31 3.27
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 169.00 153.64 0.31 3.25
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 344.00 312.73 0.31 3.20
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 480GB 480 GB 168.00 152.73 0.32 3.14
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 88.00 80.00 0.32 3.13
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 352.00 320.00 0.32 3.13
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 500GB 500 GB 177.00 160.91 0.32 3.11
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 182.00 165.45 0.33 3.02
USB Flash SanDisk Ultra, USB 3.0, 256GB 256 GB 96.90 88.09 0.34 2.91
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 250GB 250 GB 97.20 88.36 0.35 2.83
SSD Crucial BX200 SSD, MLC, 240GB 240 GB 98.10 89.18 0.37 2.69
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 110.00 100.00 0.40 2.50
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 1024GB 1024 GB 469.00 426.36 0.42 2.40
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 64GB 64 GB 29.80 27.09 0.42 2.36
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 512GB 512 GB 247.00 224.55 0.44 2.28
CD-R Verbatim CD-R 100 @ 700MB 70 GB 34.90 31.73 0.45 2.21
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 140.00 127.27 0.50 2.01
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 32GB 32 GB 18.70 17.00 0.53 1.88
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 120GB 120 GB 73.60 66.91 0.56 1.79
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 161.00 146.36 0.57 1.75
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2500/1500MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 345.00 313.64 0.61 1.63
SDXC SanDisk Extreme SDXC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 93.40 84.91 0.66 1.51
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 94.00 85.45 0.67 1.50
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 128GB 128 GB 97.30 88.45 0.69 1.45
SSD-NVM-M.2 Samsung SSD 950 Pro, M.2 2280, MLC, 2200/900MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 199.00 180.91 0.71 1.42
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 16GB 16 GB 12.90 11.73 0.73 1.36
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 419.00 380.91 0.74 1.34
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra Premium microSDXC 90MB/s, 200GB 200 GB 168.00 152.73 0.76 1.31
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro microSDXC, Class 10, 90/95MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 57.60 52.36 0.82 1.22
SDHC SanDisk Extreme SDHC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 29.00 26.36 0.82 1.21
microSDHC SanDisk Ultra microSDHC Android, Class 10, 48MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 30.60 27.82 0.87 1.15
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 62.00 56.36 0.88 1.14
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 38.10 34.64 1.08 0.92
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 8GB 8 GB 10.00 9.09 1.14 0.88
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 256GB 256 GB 342.00 310.91 1.21 0.82
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 128GB 128 GB 187.00 170.00 1.33 0.75
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 98.50 89.55 1.40 0.71
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 52.00 47.27 1.48 0.68
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 114.00 103.64 1.62 0.62
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 30.70 27.91 1.74 0.57
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 127.00 115.45 1.80 0.55
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 64.00 58.18 1.82 0.55
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 76.20 69.27 2.16 0.46
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 16GB 16 GB 43.00 39.09 2.44 0.41
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 50.10 45.55 2.85 0.35

Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 1.100000 CHF.

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Historical Cost of Computer Memory and Storage

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During 2015 there have been considerable progress on both storage and memory fronts, including larger capacity, faster SSD drives and finally a shift to DDR4 DIMM. However, the 30 year old logarithmic trend in declining magnetic storage prices is distinctly broken. In fact, this year there has been little movement in price / byte at all for HDDs.

For magnetic drives, HGST announced the biggest yet 10 TB Ultrastar Archive Ha10 drive. Interestingly, it combines the 7 platters helium filled technology with Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR). As such, it is in the same niche as the Seagate 8 TB Archive 6 platter archive drive. The helium drives are still expensive, but the Seagate SMR drives is close to the top of the list of price / byte. However, for now it is beaten by the conventional Perpendicular Magnetic Recording (PMR) Toshiba 5 TB PH3500U-1I72 drive, so there is no need to split out the SMR technology in the charts below.

Also a first, is Samsung’s enterprise SSD drive, PM1633a, which at 16 TB beats the special magnetic archive drives by a considerable margin, but of course also in price. More obtainable are the new breed of PCI NVM Express drives which increases the read/write speed far beyond the 6 Gbit/s SATA 3 barrier. The Intel 750 Series 1.2 TB drive is specified at 2500 MByte/s (20 Gbit/s) sequential read.

See here for the updated data and charts, and detailed information. That page is becoming a reference point, so I will put in more effort to keep it up to date.

Full history 1957 – present


(Click image for larger version)

Recent history 2005 – present

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DealExtreme orders

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SPF and DKIM on Postfix

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A recent post by Jody Ribton laments the fact that DIY mail servers are having a hard time not getting blocked or rejected in today’s email landscape. The ensuing Slashdot discussion dissected the problem, and came up with a few good pieces of advice also seen on this digitalocean guide:

  • Make sure the server is not an open mail relay.
  • Verify that the sender and server IP addresses are not blacklisted.
  • Apply a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) and the same host name as the PTR record.
  • Set a Sender Policy Framework (SPF) DNS record.
  • Configure DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) on the sending server and DNS.

Sender Policy Framework (SPF)

“Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is a simple email-validation system designed to detect email spoofing by providing a mechanism to allow receiving mail exchangers to check that incoming mail from a domain comes from a host authorized by that domain’s administrators”. [Wikipedia]. It is configured through a special TXT DNS record, and further setup on the sending part is not required.

This guide outlines the parameters, and the easiest way to get started is actually this Microsoft provided online wizard. Given a domain, it will guide you through the settings and present you with the DNS record to add at the end. If the domain already has a SPF record, it will verify it, and also take the current settings into account through the steps.

DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) on Postfix

DKIM offers similar email spoofing protection, but also offers simple content signing. From Wikipedia: “DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) is an email validation system designed to detect email spoofing by providing a mechanism to allow receiving mail exchangers to check that incoming mail from a domain is authorized by that domain’s administrators and that the email (including attachments) has not been modified during transport. A digital signature included with the message can be validated by the recipient using the signer’s public key published in the DNS.”

Configuration is quite straight forward on Postfix, and this guide shows a typical setup and some common pitfalls. If the same email server caters for multiple domains, an alternative configuration is required. This guide covers those details. Another DNS TXT record on the domain is also required. Finally, once the setup is complete, this tool can be used to verify the DNS record.

Verify the configuration

For both SPF and DKIM, the setup can also be verified by sending an email to check-auth@verifier.port25.com. In addition, an email can be sent to any Gmail account, and by viewing the original message and headers, an extra Authentication-Results header can be seen. See the last guide for further details.

 

 

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Manual wifi config in Debian

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Most modern GUI based distros handle setup and management of Wifi connections very well these days. However, sometimes you need to go the way of the command line. The following outlines the basics in Debian, plus some useful commands.

Driver
First, the Wifi device I had laying around was a Realtek based USB dongle similar to this. The driver for that is in the non-free repository, so I added the parts in bold to my /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ftp.ch.debian.org/debian/ wheezy main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.ch.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-updates main contrib non-free

I could then install the driver:
apt-get update
apt-get install firmware-realtek

Config
There are two config files to handle: The basic network configuration (/etc/network/interfaces), which also includes wired networks and the loopback, and the WPA wifi specific configuration (/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf). Although it is also possible to specify wifi parameters in the network interfaces file, it is better handled by the wpa because then you can configure settings for multiple networks (e.g. home and work) as seen below.

/etc/network/interfaces contains the following:

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# Wired ethernet
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

# The primary network interface
auto wlan0
allow-hotplug wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
      wpa-driver nl80211
      wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

The loopback lo interface is configured, a wired eth0 port, and the wlan0 wifi. All networks are set to come up automatically, the last two use DHCP to get their address, and the Realtek nl80211 driver is specified as well as a reference to the WPA Supplicant config.

/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf contains:

ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
update_config=1

network={
    ssid="my_home_network"
    key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
    psk="wifi passphrase"
}

network={
    ssid="my_work_network"
    key_mgmt=NONE
}

Here two networks are configured: A home network with WPA encryption and its passphrase, and an open network for work.

To bring the wifi network up, simply run the following. If iterating on the configuration, it’s has to be stopped first.

ifdown wlan0 && ifup wlan0

Useful commands
Other useful commands while debugging this include:

For general network configuration and status:

ifconfig

iwconfig

For listing all available networks and their parameters. This works even before you have connected to a specific one, so it’s a good test to see if the wifi device is even working:
iwlist wlan0 scan

For starting the wpa supplicant manually and checking the wifi configuration. Notice the specific driver and interface name:
wpa_supplicant -B -Dnl80211 -iwlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

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Storage prices

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Although the prices on medium sized, 3 to 4 TB, spinnings disks remain about constant since the beginning of the year, a new drive has jumped right to the top of the list this time: The Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB at 260 Euro or 0.03 GB Euro per GB (30.6 GB per Euro). This drive is not for everybody, though. It’s using Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) in “drive managed” mode, which means it’s a write-a-few-times / read-many drive. Or in other words, well suited for a large movie collection or as its name suggest large backups in single disk mode. It is specifically not designed for RAID mode. This review goes into further details. What’s interesting, is that it’s a 6 platter (1.33 TB platters) drive, without any other special hacks to make that work. If the same disk goes to 10 TB by next year as hinted earlier, it will mean 1.67 TB platters.

Contrast that to the Hitachi HGST Ultrastar Helium 8 TB drive at the opposite end of the HDD price spectrum. At 800 Euros, it’s more than three times more expensive than the Seagate 8 TB drive. The HGST uses helium to pack 7 platters into one drive, and needs a special seal to keep the light helium gas inside. It’s still an unproven technology, and only time will tell if it really works. Given the very high price over even 6 TB “normal” drives, it’s unclear which market segment would bet on this drive. Maybe it’s still priced at “early adopters” premium.

In the SSD section, Samsung has moved to the 850 series in both EVO Basic and Pro lines. Crucial has launched new BX100 and MX200 MLC lines. The new BX100 line gets overall good review in this Anandtech article. Prices have not changed significantly, and the larger drives still give the most bytes per coin. The 500 GB drives are now excellent laptop upgrades if you’re still on spinning disks.

Finally, on flash cards I’ve also added micro SD, and a good selection of alternative SanDisk SD cards. Except for size, the distinguishing factor on these cards is read and write speed. This SanDisk article explains the Class and UHS ratings. It’s nice to see that the cards it makes most sense to buy for the average consumer are also towards the top: For your phone (if it has a memory slot) a 64 GB Sandisk Ultra microSDXC Class 10, 48MB/s at 43 Euro should be a good investment. While for your mid-range DSLR a 64 GB Sandisk Extreme SDXC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s at 50 Euros will give lots of space and good burst rate even with raw files.

Media Type Product Capacity Price CHF Price Euros Euros / GB GBs / Euro
HDD Seagate ARCHIVE HDD 8TB 8000 GB 272.00 261.54 0.03 30.59
HDD Western Digital Green 3TB 3000 GB 107.00 102.88 0.03 29.16
HDD Western Digital Green 4TB 4000 GB 148.00 142.31 0.04 28.11
HDD Seagate Desktop 4TB 4000 GB 149.00 143.27 0.04 27.92
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 150.00 144.23 0.04 27.73
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 4TB, USB3 4000 GB 157.00 150.96 0.04 26.50
HDD Western Digital Purple 3TB 3000 GB 118.00 113.46 0.04 26.44
HDD Western Digital Green 6TB 6000 GB 237.00 227.88 0.04 26.33
External 3.5 Western Digital Elements Desktop 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 119.00 114.42 0.04 26.22
HDD Western Digital Red 3TB 3000 GB 120.00 115.38 0.04 26.00
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 3TB, USB3 3000 GB 126.00 121.15 0.04 24.76
HDD Western Digital Red 4TB 4000 GB 169.00 162.50 0.04 24.62
HDD Western Digital Purple 4TB 4000 GB 169.00 162.50 0.04 24.62
HDD Western Digital Green 2TB 2000 GB 84.70 81.44 0.04 24.56
HDD Western Digital Red 6TB 6000 GB 259.00 249.04 0.04 24.09
HDD Western Digital Red 5TB 5000 GB 216.00 207.69 0.04 24.07
HDD Hitachi Deskstar 7K4000, 4TB 4000 GB 175.00 168.27 0.04 23.77
External 3.5 Western Digital My Book 6TB, USB3 6000 GB 282.00 271.15 0.05 22.13
HDD Western Digital Purple 2TB 2000 GB 95.30 91.63 0.05 21.83
HDD Western Digital Red 2TB 2000 GB 98.00 94.23 0.05 21.22
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 99.00 95.19 0.05 21.01
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 2TB, USB3 2000 GB 107.00 102.88 0.05 19.44
HDD Western Digital Green 1TB 1000 GB 57.50 55.29 0.06 18.09
HDD Western Digital Purple 1TB 1000 GB 66.30 63.75 0.06 15.69
HDD Western Digital Red 1TB 1000 GB 68.00 65.38 0.07 15.29
External 2.5 Western Digital Elements Portable 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 69.00 66.35 0.07 15.07
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R SL 10 @ 25GB 250 GB 18.00 17.31 0.07 14.44
External 2.5 Western Digital My Passport Ultra 1TB, USB3 1000 GB 73.40 70.58 0.07 14.17
DVD-R Verbatim 16x DVD-R 100 @ 4,7GB 470 GB 34.70 33.37 0.07 14.09
HDD Hitachi Ultrastar He6 6TB 6000 GB 476.00 457.69 0.08 13.11
HDD Hitachi Ultrastar He8 8TB 8000 GB 803.00 772.12 0.10 10.36
Blu-ray Verbatim BD-R DL 10 @ 50GB 500 GB 52.00 50.00 0.10 10.00
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 25 @ 8,5GB 213 GB 37.30 35.87 0.17 5.92
DVD+R DL Verbatim 8x DVD+R DL 50 @ 8,5GB 425 GB 80.10 77.02 0.18 5.52
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 349.00 335.58 0.34 2.98
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 89.70 86.25 0.34 2.90
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 1TB 1000 GB 369.00 354.81 0.35 2.82
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 1000GB 1000 GB 372.00 357.69 0.36 2.80
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 500GB 500 GB 189.00 181.73 0.36 2.75
SSD Crucial BX100 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 190.00 182.69 0.37 2.74
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 500GB 500 GB 192.00 184.62 0.37 2.71
SSD Crucial MX200 SSD, MLC, 250GB 250 GB 104.00 100.00 0.40 2.50
SSD Crucial MX100 SSD, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 113.00 108.65 0.42 2.36
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 250GB 250 GB 116.00 111.54 0.45 2.24
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 1024GB 1024 GB 495.00 475.96 0.46 2.15
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 64GB 64 GB 31.50 30.29 0.47 2.11
CD-R Verbatim CD-R 100 @ 700MB 70 GB 36.00 34.62 0.49 2.02
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 512GB 512 GB 267.00 256.73 0.50 1.99
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 256GB 256 GB 145.00 139.42 0.54 1.84
SDXC SanDisk Ultra SDXC, Class 10, 40MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 37.00 35.58 0.56 1.80
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 32GB 32 GB 19.20 18.46 0.58 1.73
SSD Samsung SSD 850 EVO Basic, TLC, 120GB 120 GB 72.50 69.71 0.58 1.72
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra microSDXC Android, Class 10, 48MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 45.00 43.27 0.68 1.48
SDHC SanDisk Ultra SDHC, Class 10, 40MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 22.50 21.63 0.68 1.48
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra microSDXC Android 48MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 93.00 89.42 0.70 1.43
SSD Samsung SSD 850 Pro, MLC, 128GB 128 GB 93.70 90.10 0.70 1.42
SDXC SanDisk Extreme SDXC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 51.60 49.62 0.78 1.29
USB Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro, USB 3.0, 128GB 128 GB 105.00 100.96 0.79 1.27
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme microSDXC, Class 10 40/60MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 52.60 50.58 0.79 1.27
SDXC SanDisk Ultra SDXC, Class 10, 40MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 108.00 103.85 0.81 1.23
SDXC SanDisk Extreme SDXC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 111.00 106.73 0.83 1.20
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 16GB 16 GB 15.00 14.42 0.90 1.11
SDHC SanDisk Extreme SDHC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 30.20 29.04 0.91 1.10
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Plus SDXC, Class 10/UHS 1, 80/60MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 122.00 117.31 0.92 1.09
SDHC SanDisk Ultra SDHC, Class 10, 40MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 15.40 14.81 0.93 1.08
microSDHC SanDisk Ultra microSDHC Android, Class 10, 48MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 30.90 29.71 0.93 1.08
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 256GB 256 GB 258.00 248.08 0.97 1.03
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 512GB 512 GB 525.00 504.81 0.99 1.01
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 3, 95/90MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 135.00 129.81 1.01 0.99
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro microSDXC, Class 10, 90/95MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 70.90 68.17 1.07 0.94
microSDXC SanDisk Extreme Plus microSDXC, Class UHS-I/10, 50/80MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 79.00 75.96 1.19 0.84
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Plus SDXC, Class 10/UHS 1, 80/60MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 79.00 75.96 1.19 0.84
SDHC SanDisk Extreme SDHC, Class 10/UHS 3, 40/60MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 21.00 20.19 1.26 0.79
USB Flash SanDisk Cruzer Edge Flash Drive 8GB 8 GB 10.50 10.10 1.26 0.79
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 93.00 89.42 1.40 0.72
microSDXC SanDisk Ultra Premium microSDXC 90MB/s, 200GB 200 GB 299.00 287.50 1.44 0.70
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 48.70 46.83 1.46 0.68
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, 128GB 128 GB 199.00 191.35 1.49 0.67
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Plus SDHC, Class 10/UHS 1, 80/60MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 51.10 49.13 1.54 0.65
microSDHC SanDisk Extreme Plus microSDHC, Class 10, 50/80MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 51.40 49.42 1.54 0.65
SDHC SanDisk Extreme HD Video SDHC, Class 6, 20MB/s, 8GB 8 GB 15.80 15.19 1.90 0.53
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 127.00 122.12 1.91 0.52
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 256GB 256 GB 535.00 514.42 2.01 0.50
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDXC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 64GB 64 GB 145.00 139.42 2.18 0.46
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I, Class 10/UHS 1, 95/90MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 37.30 35.87 2.24 0.45
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 78.10 75.10 2.35 0.43
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 32GB 32 GB 79.00 75.96 2.37 0.42
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 64GB 64 GB 160.00 153.85 2.40 0.42
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Plus SDHC, Class 10/UHS 1, 80/60MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 40.70 39.13 2.45 0.41
SDXC SanDisk Extreme Plus SDXC, Class 10/UHS 1, 80/30MB/s, 8GB 8 GB 22.90 22.02 2.75 0.36
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 32GB 32 GB 93.00 89.42 2.79 0.36
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme 120MB/s, UDMA 7, 16GB 16 GB 50.70 48.75 3.05 0.33
Compact Flash SanDisk Extreme Pro 160MB/s, UDMA 7, 128GB 128 GB 408.00 392.31 3.06 0.33
SDHC SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-II, UHS 3, 280/250MB/s, 16GB 16 GB 63.80 61.35 3.83 0.26

Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 1.040000 CHF.

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The Negative Effects of Lead

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There have been several studies over the last years which investigate the correlation between lead exposure and crime. Just last week, Feigenbaum and Muller (2015) [PDF] published another, looking at the correlation between the use of lead pipes in US cities in the 1890s and the homicide rates 30 years later. Their most conservative estimates “suggest that cities’ use of lead service pipes increased city-level homicide rates by twenty-five percent.”.

There have been more studies, and the Mother Jones article from 2013 did a good job of summarizing many of them: Rick Kevin shows in his (1999) [PDF] paper the effect of lead from gasoline in US cities on the violent crime rate 20 to 25 years later. The correlation is consistent over up to 120 years in some of his data. In another paper from (2007) [PDF], he found similar correlation in other nations, including Britain, Canada, France, Australia, Finland, Italy, West Germany, and New Zealand. Similar studies were made by Reyes (2007), and Mielkea, Zahran (2012).

What makes these studies interesting, as the Mother Jones article points out, is that they are the only theories which can accurately describe the raise and fall of the “crime epidemic” of the 1970s and 80s in the US and elsewhere. In particular, it makes the claim that the “tough on crime” and “war on drugs” had a significant effect on crime levels less likely, or at least had a minor effect compared to lead exposure.

This is important, since the government wars on abstracts and concepts, “crime” “drugs” and “terrorism” are all raging and threatening innocent lives across the US. If some of the fuel behind these polices can be removed by research, all the better.

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